- Avoid restraints by engaging family as "sitters". Staff must teach the family "what to do" (teach them how to re-orient or distract the patient), especially useful in dementia)
- Re-orient patient with clocks, calendars, windows, etc.
- Provide visual control with adequate lighting during day and soft lighting at night to avoid delusional stimulation
- Non-pharmacologic sleep assistance with bedtime: massage, warm milk/herbal tea, relaxing music.
- 0.5mg of melatonin may be protective