Computed Tomography (CT)

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CT-Specific Handbook

Program Description

See About the Profession and Our Program for complete descriptions of the Computed Tomography Practicum.

Accreditation

The Computed Tomography Practicum is offered as an advanced option under the Radiography Program and is not a separately accredited program. The Radiography Program is accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT).

For more information on JRCERT, please use the contact information below: Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT) 20 North Wacker Drive, Suite 2850 Phone: 312.704.5300 Chicago, IL 60606-3182 Website: www.jrcert.org

Admission Requirements

Admissions policies for CT

Notice of Nondiscriminatory Policy

In accordance with University policy, the University of Nebraska Medical Center prohibits the denial of admission, or of Medical Center privileges, to students or applicants on the basis of race, color, sex, national origin, age, handicap, or religious or political beliefs. These privileges include, but are not limited to, admission, class assignments, scholarships, fellowships, assistantships, and financial aid as well as housing and recreational facilities. Furthermore, student organizations must base their selection of students for memberships on criteria which will not include race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, or handicap.

Admittance to UNMC Programs will not be denied to otherwise qualified handicapped individuals solely by reason of their handicap. Qualified handicapped persons are those who meet the academic and technical standards required for participation in the specific education program.

Advanced Placement

The UNMC CT Practicum does not grant advanced placement to any applicant admitted to the Practicum. All courses are designed as "Required" and must be taken by every student.

Background Checks Policy

Healthcare facilities utilized for student clinical experiences require background checks in order to meet accreditation and/or state law requirements. Therefore all enrolled students are required to undergo a Background Check. The student is responsible for the fee for this service. Instructions for completing the background check will be given upon admission to the practicum. UNMC has the right to withdraw acceptance to someone with adverse findings if these findings would place restrictions on didactic or clinical placement in the practicum.

Health Immunizations

Students completing their clinical requirements at The Nebraska Medical Center must provide a medical history and evidence of certain vaccinations or immunities.

Students shall be expected to provide physician certification of the following:

  • A previous vaccination for rubella or evidence of an immune titer.
  • Tetanus/Diphtheria/Pertussis (DPT) within the last two years.
  • Measles, Mumps, Rubeola (MMR) - must have 2 vaccinations or a positive titer.
  • Vaccinations for mumps and polio or documentation on the medical history form that the student had the disease previously.
  • Varicella (chicken pox) - documentation required for year of disease, date of immune titer or two immunizations.
  • TB Skin Test - must receive a negative skin test 1-6 months prior to entering the Program or results of treatment for a positive reaction.
  • Hepatitis B vaccine - must have started or completed 3 vaccinations and received a positive titer before entering the Program.

Medical History Forms are sent to all incoming UNMC students. Forms must be completed, signed and immunizations verified by a health care professional prior to enrollment. Students will not be allowed to enroll unless documentation has been provided for their required immunizations. All forms will be kept in the Student Health Administrative Office for a period of 10 years.

All full-time students are required to have inpatient health and disability insurance through a student health insurance program contracted by UNMC unless evidence of comparable coverage is provided.

Withdrawal from the Practicum

In the event a student finds it necessary to withdraw from the CT Practicum, the following process must be followed to leave in academic good standing:

  1. Any student wishing to withdraw must state the reason for withdrawal in a letter of resignation addressed to the program director.
  2. Once a letter of resignation has been signed and submitted, the student may not re-enter the practicum regardless of enrollment status with UNMC Academic Records/Student Success. Resignation cannot be effective until the withdrawal forms are properly completed and signed by the proper individuals. It is the student's responsibility to complete the formal process and forms (including financial obligations) through UNMC Student Success when leaving the program. However, dismissal will be instituted by the program if a student fails to attend classes for three consecutive weeks without prior approval from their respective program director.

Tuition Refund Policy

Tuition refunds are computed using the effective date on the withdrawal form required to be completed by any student withdrawing from any academic program. Students who withdraw are not relieved from the payment of any balance due. Refunds will be applied first to unpaid balances. Any remaining balance or obligation to any University service must be paid. Failure to do so may prevent future registration. Refunds are not made for fees.

Refunds are calculated from the official beginning of the semester as stated in the academic calendar.

Students who receive financial aid and withdraw during the refund period may have to repay all or a portion of their financial aid received. A financial aid recipient should contact the Office of Financial Aid prior to withdrawal.

Refund Schedule

Time of Withdrawal Refund% Chargeable%
Before 1st day of semester 100% 0%
1st Week of classes 100% 0%
2nd Week of classes 75% 25%
3rd Week of classes 50% 50%
4th Week of classes 25% 75%
5th Week of classes 0% 100%

Curriculum

Estimated Tuition & Related Expenses

Program-Specific Policies & Procedures

All CT students will be required to sign the Student Responsibility Statement.

Supervision of Students

Clinical Supervision of Students: All CT students must have adequate and proper supervision during all clinical assignments as specified by individual institutional, program, and accreditation policies. The following policies and procedures apply to UNMC clinical assignments for students, technologists, and evaluators.

CT Procedure: A registered technologist will provide direct supervision for procedures performed. The student will transition from observation to active participation during the curriculum. Initially, the staff technologist will provide direct one-on-one supervision regardless of the exam or its degree of difficulty. Ultimately the student will transition to a more active role in the completion of an exam. After adequate didactic and clinical instruction and exam competency has been established, the supervising technologist may take on more of an indirect role. The supervising technologist will always remain available to the student.

Procedure for Clinical Evaluations

  1. Clinical evaluations include the three domains of learning: cognitive (knowledge), affective (professional behaviors), and psychomotor (technical skills).
  2. The student will receive a minimum of two evaluations while enrolled in the practicum.
  3. Clinical staff feedback will be used in the evaluation process.

Academic Probation

See CAHP academic probation policy.

Student Grievance

Purpose: The CT Practicum strives to promote an educational environment that values fair and equitable treatment among students, faculty, and staff. Despite this goal, differences among individuals may occasionally lead to conflicting circumstances that require a process for resolution to take place. The purpose of the Student Grievance Policy is to provide a framework to effectively resolve any justified complaint or grievance without retaliation.

Examples or Types of Grievances (but not limited to):

  • Acts or threats of intimidation
  • Acts or threats of physical aggression
  • Acts of bias or unfair treatment by a fellow student, faculty or staff member which adversely effects the learning process
  • Violation of student rights and responsibilities

Procedure:

  1. Informal Process - Ideally, grievances can be resolved informally among the parties involved. Therefore, before a formal grievance process takes place, the student is encouraged to meet with the individual whose behavior warranted the grievance. If this action is not feasible, the student should contact the program director for possible resolution. A final option for informal resolution is to utilize an Ombudsperson. The Ombudsperson identified for students on the UNMC campus is located in the Student Counseling Department. The informal meeting must take place within two weeks of the occurrence that caused the grievance.
  2. Formal Process- If the student is not satisfied with the results of the informal process, or an informal resolution is not possible then he/she should initiate the formal process within 30 days of the occurrence.
    1. A formal statement of the grievance must be presented in writing to the Department Chair within the timeframe specified. (If the Chair is the individual involved, then the formal statement should be submitted to the Dean of the College of Allied Health Professions). The formal statement must include the following items: A) Full name, address, and telephone number of the person(s) making the charge; B) Full name of each person being charged, location of employment, and work telephone number; C) A concise and factual description of the specific incident(s) surrounding the grievance violation (the description should include a timeline of events); D) A proposed resolution
    2. The Chair (Dean, if applicable) will review the facts surrounding the grievance. If there is justified evidence that a grievance exists, then the grievance will be forwarded to the Faculty-Student Appeals (Grievance) Committee.
    3. Within two weeks after receiving the alleged grievance, the committee members will review the statement, convene to discuss the issues at hand, hear testimony, and consider all other facts pertaining to the grievance.
    4. Both parties will have the right to present testimony, evidence, and witnesses. Each party shall have the right to seek legal counsel in the preparation of statements concerning the grievance; however, they may not be represented by counsel in discussions with the committee. Each party shall have the right to hear all testimony surrounding the grievance. The hearing will be closed to the public.
    5. In all proceedings where the complaint touches upon questions of policies, rules and regulations, the Faculty-Student Appeals (Grievance) Committee shall be guided by written policies, rules and regulations. The committee will make a decision on the grievance charge after reviewing all facts, testimony, and documentation. The committee’s decision or resolution will be made within two weeks following the hearing. Both parties involved will be notified of the decision in writing. A summary record of the proceedings will be maintained in a confidential file.

The student may appeal the decision of the Faculty-Student Appeals (Grievance) Committee, to the Office of the Dean. The Dean will review all documents surrounding the grievance, and make a decision within two weeks of receiving the appeal. Both parties involved will be notified of the decision in writing. The decision by the Dean will be final.

Clinical Compliance

Incidents: As general policy, CT students will comply with the policies and procedures with the clinical site at which they are assigned. It is the policy that there be written reports of all unusual incidents/accidents. An incident is an unusual occurrence which is not consistent with the routine operation of the institution or clinical rotation which may or did cause harm, involves possible negligence, requires some immediate consideration or action by a supervisor.

A student is expected to provide prompt, complete and accurate written documentation of the details related to any accidents/incidents, thus enabling corrective actions and/or programs for prevention. Students with signs and symptoms of an infectious process should report immediately to the program director for appropriate referral.

All incidents must immediately be reported to the technical supervisor or immediate person in charge. Proper report forms must be completed.

Equipment Use and Operation: The professions in Medical Imaging and Therapeutic Sciences employ the use of highly specialized equipment. Any equipment failure or equipment that is not in proper working order must be reported immediately to the technical supervisor. Do not place any calls to equipment representatives. Do not attempt to repair.

Blood Borne Pathogens Exposure Plan for Students

UNMC’s Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure policy will be followed.

Radiation Protection

It is each student’s responsibility to adhere to the following guidance for radiation protection:

  1. Students must practice safe radiation and protection criteria and practice the principles of ALARA at all times. These are found in the UNMC Radiation Safety Manual available online at www.unmc.edu/ehs.
  2. The principles of decreased time and increased distance and shielding shall be employed when working with radiation.
  3. The spread of any accidental contamination from radioactive materials will be decreased by frequent personnel monitoring and hand washing.
  4. Radiation exposure is measured by personnel monitoring device; therefore, they must be worn at all times within the department. Personnel monitoring devices are to be worn at the collar. It is the student’s responsibility to exchange badges on a quarterly basis with person designated by the Radiation Safety Office (RSO) for each program.
  5. If your personnel monitoring device is lost or left where it can be exposed unknowingly, contact the respective program director immediately.
  6. In accordance with the philosophy of keeping exposures ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable), the Radiation Safety Office has established levels at which the dosimetry company will provide immediate notification of a higher than normal reading. These notification levels are presently as follows:
Dose Type Evaluation Level Investigation Level
DDE (whole body) 300 mrem 600 mrem
LDE (lens of eye) 900 mrem 1500 mrem
SDE (skin or extremity) 900 mrem 2000 mrem
Declared Pregnant Woman 40 mrem 50 mrem

ALARA DOSE LIMITS (PER MONITORING PERIOD)

Any doses above the ALARA Evaluation Level require that the Radiation Safety Officer review the circumstances pertaining to this dose and determine if additional actions need to be taken or if further investigation is required. An investigation requires that the Radiation Safety Officer investigate the cause of the dose and steps that may be required to prevent this dose level in the future with consideration of cost and scientific impact. All doses above the ALARA action levels will be reported to the Radiation Safety Committee.

The Radiation Safety Committee may alter these values based on regulatory or departmental concerns. When an individual exceeds any one of these levels, a follow-up survey may be conducted to determine if a reduction in dose can be reasonably achieved.

For further information regarding personnel monitoring of ionizing radiation, refer to the UNMC Radiation Safety Manual or contact the Radiation Safety Office.

If a student becomes pregnant, she is encouraged to voluntarily consult with the program director concerning the most appropriate procedure to assure that exposure to the fetus is less than 0.5 rem (refer to Pregnancy Policy below).

Pregnancy

The pregnancy policy is a voluntary program intended to provide safety for pregnant students and their fetus who are considered occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In the event of a suspected or confirmed pregnancy, it is the responsibility of the student to advise her program director in writing of her condition. Pregnancy will not affect the student’s enrollment in the academic courses in the program. However, due to the physical requirements placed upon the student in the clinical courses and assignments, and in order to comply with 180 NAC 004.13 (10 CFR Part 20.1208) to keep the radiation exposure to the fetus as low as reasonably achievable (no more than 500 mrem during the entire gestation period), the following procedures will apply:

  1. The student may voluntarily report suspected or confirmed pregnancy to the program director. At that time the UNMC/Nebraska Medicine policies and procedures and the CT Program Specific Student Policies and Procedures Manual pregnancy policy will be reviewed with the student. Once the student has elected to declare suspected or confirmed pregnancy, the student should:
  2. Complete the “UNIVERSITY of NEBRASKA MEDICAL CENTER DECLARATION OF PREGNANCY” form and forward it to the Radiation Safety Office.
  3. The Radiation Safety Office will determine the estimated radiation dose from time of conception to the date of declaration based on dosimetry records and calculate the permissible remaining dose to the embryo/fetus for the remainder of the pregnancy. (See form).
  4. Upon review of the findings and recommendations of the Radiation Safety Officer or Medical Radiation Physicist, clinical assignments will be reviewed. Clinical assignments will only be altered if the fetus received the maximum permissible dose as stated by 180 NAC 004.13 (10 CFR Part 20.1208). Any clinical competencies not completed for reasons related to pregnancy must be successfully completed prior to graduation.
  5. Provide the program director with written indication of intent to:
    1. continue in the program, or
    2. take a medical leave of absence with intent to complete the program (form available from CAHP Academic & Student Affairs), or
    3. withdraw from the program (form available from CAHP Academic and Student Affairs).
  6. The student should provide the program director with written consent from her physician providing medical advice for:
    1. continuing in the program as a full-time student, and/or
    2. any limitations placed upon the student while enrolled in the program.
  7. A student may also voluntarily withdraw their declaration of pregnancy at any time. (See form.)
  8. Upon review of the findings and recommendations of the Radiation Safety Officer or Medical Radiation Physicist, clinical assignments will be reviewed. Clinical assignments will only be altered if the fetus received the maximum permissible dose as stated by 180 NAC 004.13 (10 CFR Part 20.1208). Any clinical competencies not completed for reasons related to pregnancy must be successfully completed prior to graduation.

Dress Code Policy

All students will dress in a professional manner, appropriate for the situation and according to the following guidelines.

Attire

  1. All CT students will wear Bahama Blue scrubs with or without a Bahama Blue lab jacket for both class and clinic.
  2. The uniform top will have the UNMC/Nebraska Medicine logo on upper left chest. All uniforms should be purchased online here.
  3. A solid white or gray shirt may be worn under the scrub top and must be tucked into the scrub pant.
  4. Flat, enclosed-toe, neutral colored shoes are acceptable. Socks must be worn at all times.

Accessories & Tattoos

  1. Proper UNMC photo ID and personnel monitoring devices must be worn at all times. The ID must be visible at all times to identify student status.
  2. Simple jewelry may be worn with the uniform, i.e., small earrings, wedding rings, and watches.
    1. Earrings must be small and not touching the neck.
  3. Single and/or discreet piercings of the ears, nose, lip, tongue and eyebrow are permitted.
    1. Examples of piercings not permissible may include but are not limited to large or multiple loops in the eyebrows, lip or nose, visible transdermal implants, or piercings on other areas of the face.
    2. Ear gauges must be plugged with flesh colored plugs while in clinic.
  4. Bandanas are not permitted.
  5. All visible tattoos on the face or neck must be covered (except permanent makeup).
  6. All visible tattoo designs that the average person would find offensive, including but not limited to hateful, violent, profane and/or nudity, must be completely covered.

Students are held responsible for their appearance and will be dismissed from clinic if inappropriately attired or groomed, per discretion of their clinical site. Should a clinical site have different policies, the student must adhere to those during the rotation. If a student is sent home from clinic due to a dress code violation, the amount of time missed from clinic will be deducted from the student comp time allotment.

Use of Technology

  1. Personal phone calls during clinic hours must be kept to a minimum.
  2. Personal technology may not be used during class or clinic unless for educational purposes as approved by class or clinical instructors.

Student Leave Time

Students enrolled in the CT Practicum are given 24 hours of leave time for personal affairs each semester. It is intended to provide necessary time for planned or unplanned events without jeopardizing the student’s attendance record. Regarding the use of student leave time, the following guidelines must be followed:

  1. Unused time allotted is not transferrable to a successive semester.
  2. Students taking more than the allotted number of hours will be required to make up the time according to the discretion of the program director.
  3. Unauthorized absenteeism may result in disciplinary actions.
  4. A student may be required to furnish satisfactory medical proof of illness, disability or dental work.
  5. It is recommended that suspected and confirmed pregnancy be reported to the program director. Time lost due to pregnancy must be made up according to the decision of the program director based on the Radiation Protection and Pregnancy Policies contained in this document.
  6. Full time students may request up to 5 days of funeral/bereavement leave in the event of a death of an immediate family member. Documentation may need to be provided upon request.

Provision of compensation time is intended to ensure fair, uniform, and impartial treatment for all students. Students may voluntarily choose to spend additional authorized time participating in clinic procedures over and above their scheduled hours as long as the student continues to perform in the student capacity, including direct supervision and holding only student clinical responsibilities.

The CT faculty supports participation in professional organizations relevant to the student’s professional growth and development. Therefore, students may qualify for earned time for documented attendance and involvement in these activities. See program director for more information.

Student Employment Guidelines

Opportunities for student employment may exist in the clinic departments and may be initiated and/or discontinued as dictated by needs.

  1. Students may not take the place of regular staff in the clinical areas to which they are assigned. It is appropriate, however, for students to assume the responsibility for performing defined activities and tasks, with adequate direction and supervision, after demonstration of clinical competencies.
  2. Students may be employed in a clinical setting outside regular educational hours, provided this work does not interfere with their academic responsibilities. In addition, student employment in the clinical setting is non-compulsory and is subject to standard employee policies.

Personal Property

UNMC and all clinical affiliate sites are not responsible for valuable possessions. All valuables and money should be monitored closely by each individual.

Inclement Weather Policy

If a student feels unable to travel to class or clinicals, it is the student's responsibility to communicate with their program director and/or clinical faculty. The amount of time may be deducted from their compensation time. See the CAHP Inclement Weather Policy.

Program Faculty