Chi Lin, M.D., Ph.D.

Chi Lin, M.D., Ph.D.Professor and Vice Chair of Research

Residency-Radiation Oncology, Drexel University of College of Medicine
Internship-Internal Medicine, MCP-Hahnemann University
PhD-Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University
MD-Shanghai Medical University
Board Certification:
American Board of Radiology (ABR) - June 2004
Professional Societies:
American College of Radiation Oncology (ACRO)
American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO)
American College of Radiology (ACR)
Clinical & Research Interests:
Gastrointestinal Cancer
Pediatric Cancers
Lung Cancer
Other General Cancers and medical conditions that can be treated with radiation.
Research Projects:
My long-term research goal is 1) to use laboratory and clinical data to understand factors influencing treatment outcomes and to generate hypotheses for clinical trials; 2) to design and develop clinical trials and to hasten the introduction of improved regimens for cancer therapy into everyday medical practice and patient care.
Project 1: The overall objective of this project is to identify and characterize pathway(s) contributing to radioresistance in pancreatic cancer (PC) that can be explored as novel targets for radiosensitization. Specifically, the primary goal is to validate the role of cholesterol biosynthesis (CBS) in PC radioresistance and evaluate the efficacy of Zoledronic acid (Zometa) as a novel radiosensitizer (RST) for PC in preclinical studies and Phase I/II clinical trial. The central hypotheses of this proposal are that “the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway contributes to radioresistance in PC. Also, Zometa inhibits specific pathways consistently implicated in PC radioresistance and its use will radio-sensitize PC both in vitro and in vivo”. I am currently running a clinical trial assessing the safety and radiosensitizing efficacy of Zometa. (NCT03073785)
Project 2:  The overall objective of this project is to examine if BMX-001 is a good normal tissue radio-protector. The majority of rectal and anal cancer patients are treated with some form of radiation therapy. Most patients will suffer from acute and/or chronic adverse effects associated with radiation exposure, which leads to a reduced quality of life. Currently there are no FDA approved treatments to protect normal pelvic tissues from radiation damage. Our data clearly show that the manganese porphyrin, BMX-001, protects normal tissues from radiation-induced damage. In addition, BMX-001 does not interfere with the cancer killing of chemo-radiation therapy in colorectal cancer cells. Our hypothesis is that the manganese porphyrin, BMX-001, will protect normal tissues from radiation-induced damage while not protecting the cancer cells in patients undergoing radiation therapy for anal cancers. I am currently running a clinical trial assessing the safety and radioprotection efficacy of BMX-001. (NCT03386500)
  1. Charlton, M.E, Lin. C., Jiang. D., Stitzenberg, K.B., Halfdanarson, T.R., Pendergast, J.F., Chrischilles, E.A., and Wallace, R.B.: "Factors associated with use of pre-operative chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium." AJCO, 36(6):572-579, 2013, PMID:22992624
  2. Souchek, J., Baine, M., Lin, C, Rachagani, S., Gupta, S., Kaur, S., Lester, K., Zheng, D., Chen, S., Smith, L., Lazenby, A., Johansson, S.L., Jain, M., and Batra, S. "Unbiased analysis of pancreatic cancer radiation resistance reveals cholesterol biosynthesis as a novel target for radiosensitization" British Journal of Cancer. 2014 Sep 9;111(6):1139-49.  PMID: 25025965
  3. Yan, Y., Hein, A., Etekpo, A., Burchett, K.M., Lin, C., Enke, C.A., Batra, S.K., Cowan, K.H., Ouellette, M.M. "Inhibition of RAC1 GTPase sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to Ɣ-irradiation" Oncotarget.  2014 Nov 15;5(21):10251-70.  PMID: 25344910
  4. Baine, M, Lin, C. "Radiation Therapy Improves Survival Outcome in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Comparison of a 15-year institutional experience at the University of Nebraska Medical Center with SEER data" Journal of Radiotherapy Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 708317, 6 pages
  5. Zhang, Q., Zheng, D., Lei, Y., Driewer, J., Morgan, B., Zhang , M., Li, S., Zhou , S., Zhen , W., Thompson, R.B., Wahl, A.O., Lin, C., and Enke, C.A. "Dosimetric Effect of Prescription Isodose Line Selection on Normal Tissues in SRS and SRT Treatment Planning" Br J Radiol.  2014 Nov;87(1043):20140362.  PMC4207160
  6. Wilke, T.J., Bhirud, A.R., Lin, C.  "A review of the impact of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on outcome and postoperative complications in esophageal cancer patients" Am J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug; 38 (4):415-21. PMID: 24351783
  7. Charlton, M.E., Stitzenberg, K.B., Lin, C., Schlichting, J.A., Halfdanarson, T.R., Juarez, G.Y., Pendergast, J.F., Chrischilles, E.A., and Wallace, R.B. "Predictors of Long-Term Quality of Life for Survivors of Stage II/III Rectal Cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium" J Oncol Pract. 2015 Jul;11(4):e476-86. PMID:26080831
  8. Wilke, T.J., Bhirud, A.R., Lin, C. "A review of the impact of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on outcome and postoperative complications in esophageal cancer patients" Am J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug;38(4):415-21. PMID:24351783
  9. Verma, V., Catrina, J., Bennion, N., Bhirud, A., Li, S., McComb, R., Lin, C. "Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor: Long-Term Survival after Chemoradiotherapy" Childs Nerv Syst. 2015 Aug;31(8):1393-9, PMID:25939716
  10. Lin, C., Lin, J., Stavas, M., Li, S., Canady, K.J., Romberger, D., Loberiza, F.R. "Impact of Body Mass Index on Pulmonary Complications in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Treated with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation" Leukemia and lymphoma, 2015, 2015;56(11):3058-64. PMID:25739939
  11. Malouff, T, Bennion, NR, Verma, V, Martinez, GA, Balkman N, Bhirud, A, Smith T, Lin, C. "Which Prognostic Index is Most Appropriate in the Setting of Delayed Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases?" Front Oncol. 2016 Nov 21; 6: 248, PMID: 27917372
  12. Chiu MS, Verma V, Bennion NR, Bhirud AR, Li J, Charlton ME, Are C, Lin C. "Comparison of outcomes between rectal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma." Cancer Med. 2016 Oct 26, PMID: 27781400
  13. Denniston, K.A., Verma, V., Bhirud, A.R., Bennion, N.R., Lin, C. "Effect of Akimbo Versus Raised Arm Positioning on Breast and Cardiopulmonary Dosimetry in Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma" Front. Oncol. 2016 Jul 26;6:176. PMID:27508169
  14. Gharzai L., Verma V., Denniston K.A., Bhirud A.R., Bennion N.R., Lin C. "Radiation Therapy and Cardiac Death in Long-Term Survivors of Esophageal Cancer: An Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Database" PLOS ONE, 2016 Jul 18;11(7):e0158916, PMID:27428362
  15. Xu, B., Chen, Y., Guo, Y., Zhou, D., Yue, Z., Duan, Q., Yang, Y., Guan, G., Chi, P., Lin, C. "Pretreatment tumor thickness as a predictor of pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma." AJCO. 2016 Sep 26. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:27672742
  16. Xu, B., Guo, Y., Chen, Y., Lu,H., Tang, T., Yue, Z., Guan, G., Chi, P., Lin, C. "Is the irradiated small bowel volume still a predictor for acute lower gastrointestinal toxicity during preoperative concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer when using intensity-modulated radiation therapy?" Radiation Oncology, 2016 Volume 10, page 257 PMID 26684643
  17. Dhir M, Melin AA, Douaiher J, Lin C, Zhen WK, Hussain SM, Geschwind JF, Doyle MB, Abou-Alfa GK, Are C."A Review and Update of Treatment Options and Controversies in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma" Annals of Surgery: June 2016 - Volume 263 - Issue 6 - p 1112–1125. PMID:26813914
  18. Zheng, D., Zhu, X., Zhang, Q., Liang, X., Zhen, W., Lin, C., Verma, V., Wang, S., Wahl, A.O., Lei, Y., Zhou, S., Zhang, C "Target dose conversion modeling from pencil beam (PB) to Monte Carlo (MC) for lung SBRT" BMC Radiation Oncology 2016 Jun 17;11:83. PMID 27316922
  19. Verma, V., Li, J, Lin C. Neoadjuvant Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer: Systematic Review of Postoperative Morbidity, Mortality, and Complications, AJCO, 2016 Jun; 39 (3):302-13 PMID 26950464
  20. Bennion, N.R., Malouff, T., Verma, V., Denniston, K., Bhirud, A.R., Zhen, W., Wahl, A., Lin, C.  "A Comparison of Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes Between Frame-based and Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases" Practical Radiation Oncology, 2016 May 9. pii: S1879-8500(16)30046-7. PMID:27523439
  21. Verma, V., Beethe, A., LeRiger, M., Kulkarni, R., Zhang, M., Lin, C. Anesthesia Complications of Pediatric Radiotherapy.  Practice Radiation Oncology, 2016 May-Jun; 6 (3):143-54 PMID 26725960
  22. Kosmacek, E.A., Chatterjee, A., Tong, Q., Lin, C., Oberley-Deegan, R.E. "MnTnBuOE-2-PyP protects normal colorectal fibroblasts from radiation damage and simultaneously enhances radio/chemotherapeutic killing of colorectal cancer cells." Oncotarget. 2016 Apr 22. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8923. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:27119354
  23. Verma, V., Kulkarni, R.R., Bhirud, A.R., Bennion, N.R., McComb, R.D., Lin, C. Metachronous medulloblastoma and glioblastoma: Implications for clinical and technical aspects of re-irradiation. Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy, 2016 Jan-Feb; 21 (1):84-9. PMID: 26900364
  24. Bennion, N., Nowak, R.K., Lyden, E.R. Thompson, R.B., Sicong Li, S., Lin, C. "Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: Dosimetric Factors Predictive of Hearing Outcomes" Practical Radiation Oncology, 2016 Sep-Oct;6(5):e155-62. PMID: 26961715
  25. Verma, V., Shah, C., Lautenschlaeger, T., Lin, C., Beriwal, S., Zhen, W., Mehta, M.P., Zietman, A.L., "International Medical Graduates in Radiation Oncology: Historical Trends and Comparison With Other Medical Specialties" IJROBP, July 15, 2016, Volume 95, Issue 4, Pages 1102–1106 PMID 27209507
  26. Zhu, X., Li, J., Li, X., Li, Y., Ni, Q., Wang, L., Gu, J., Cai, Y., and Lin, C. "Two-week Course of Preoperative Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Adenocarcinoma: 8 Years' Experience in a Single Institute" Am J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jun; 40(3):266-273.PMID:25503430
  27. Seshacharyulu, P., Baine, M.J., Souchek, J.J., Menning, M., Kaur, S., Yan, Y., Ouellette, M.M., Jain, M., Lin, C., Batra, S.K. "Biological determinants of radioresistance and their remediation in pancreatic cancer" Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Feb 27; 1868 (1):69-92, PMID: 28249796
  28. Verma, V., Bhirud, A.R., Denniston, K.A., Bennion, N.R., Lin, C. "Quantification of renal function following stereotactic body radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer: secondary dosimetric analysis of a prospective clinical trial." Radiat Oncol. 2017 Apr 27; 12 (1):71. PMID: 28449702
  29. Verma, V., Denniston, K.A., Lin, C.J., Lin, C. "A Comparison of Pediatric vs. Adult Patients with the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors" Front Oncol. 2017 May 8; 7: 82 PMID: 28534008
  30. Wu, G., Verma, V., Lin, C. "Feasibility and Reproducibility of Substituting Oral Contrast with Water for Duodenal Volume Delineation in Patients Undergoing Pancreatic Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy" J Gastrointest Oncol. 2017 Aug; 8(4): 705-709. PMC5582030
  31. Schonewolf, C.A., Verma, V., Post, C.M., Berman, A.T., Frick, M.A., Vachani, A., Lin, C., Simone, C.B. "Outcomes of Invasive Mediastinal Nodal Staging Versus Positron Emission Tomography Staging Alone for Early-Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy" Lung Cancer. 2017 Jul 14. pii: S0169-5002(17)30384-7. PMID: 28800837
  32. Charlton, M.E., Kahl, A.R., Greenbaum, A.A., Karlitz, J.J., Lin, C., Lynch, C.F., Chen, V.W. "KRAS Testing, Tumor Location and Survival in Stage IV Colorectal Cancer Patients: SEER, 2010-2013" J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2017 Dec;15(12):1484-1493. PMID: 29223986
  33. Zvolanek, K., Ma, R., Zhou, C., Liang, X., Wang, S., Verma, V., Zhu, X., Zhang, Q., Driewer, J., Lin, C., Zhen, W., Wahl, A., Zhou, S., Zheng, D. "Still equivalent for dose calculation in the Monte Carlo era? A comparison of free breathing and average intensity projection CT datasets for lung SBRT using three generations of dose calculation algorithms" Med Phys. 2017 May;44(5):1939-1947. PMID: 28273341
  34. Gunda, V., Souchek, J., Abrego, J., Shukla, S.K., Goode, G.D., Vernucci, E., Dasgupta, A., Chaika, N.V., King, R.J., Li, S., Wang, S., Yu, F., Bessho, T., Lin, C., Singh, P.K. "MUC1-mediated metabolic alterations regulate response to radiotherapy in pancreatic cancer" Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Oct 1;23(19):5881-5891. PMID:28720669
  35. Verma, V., Ryckman, J.M., Simone, C.B., Lin, C. "Patterns of care and outcomes with the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy for stage I nasopharyngeal cancer" Acta Oncologica, 19 Jul 2017, 57(2):257-261. PMID:28723264
  36. Baine, MJ, Lin, C. "Genome-based modeling for adjusting radiotherapy dose (GARD)-a significant step toward the future of personalized radiation therapy" Translational Cancer Research, Vol 6, Supplement 2 (March 2017) S418-S420. doi: 10.21037/tcr.2017.03.05
  37. Lin, C. "When it comes to elderly and poor performance status patients with pancreatic cancer, SBRT may be a better option" J Oncology Practice, 2017, 13 (3): 167-168. PMID:28282281
  38. Verma V, Lazenby AJ, Zheng D, Bhirud AR, Ly QP, Are C, Sasson AR, Lin C. "Dosimetric Parameters Correlate With Duodenal Histopathologic Damage After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: Secondary Analysis of a Prospective Clinical Trial." Radiother Oncol. 2017 Mar;122(3):464-469. PMID: 28089484
  39. Verma V, Surkar SM, Brooks ED, Simone CB II, Lin C. Chemoradiotherapy Versus Chemotherapy Alone for Unresected Nonmetastatic Gallbladder Cancer: National Practice Patterns and Outcomes. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2018 Jan;16(1):59-65. PMID: 29295882
  40. Verma V, Ryckman JM, Simone CB II, Lin C. Patterns of care and outcomes with the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy for stage I nasopharyngeal cancer. Acta Oncol. 2018 Feb;57(2):257-261. PMID: 28723264


SPORE in Pancreatic Cancer
Focus is on translational studies that address basic and clinical issues of importance to improving outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer.
2 P50 CA127297-06A1 (Hollingsworth)
9/23/2014 – 8/31/2019
Role: Project Leader
Title of the project: Novel Target(s) in the Radiosensitization of Pancreatic Cancer

1R01CA195586-01A1 (Batra)
07/01/2015 - 06/30/2020
Role: co-PI: Targeted Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer

UNMC #MXH/99-925-1429
A Randomized Phase II Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy and 5FU or capecitabine with and without Zometa in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Role: PI

Otis Glebe Medical Research Foundation Grant
$ 95,000
A Phase 1 Trial for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Anal Cancer Treated with Concurrent Radiation Therapy, 5FU, Mitomycin and BMX-001
BioMimetix provide BMX-001
Role: PI

Bob Holmes Cancer Research Fund-01144460
To test the immune effects of metformin in treating pancreatic cancer
Role: PI