Chi Lin, MD, PhD

Chi Lin, MD, PhDProfessor and Vice Chair of Research

Residency-Radiation Oncology, Drexel University of College of Medicine
Internship-Internal Medicine, MCP-Hahnemann University
Master of Science-Clinical and translational mentored program, UNMC
PhD-Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University
MD-Shanghai Medical University
Board Certification:
American Board of Radiology (ABR) - June 2004
Professional Societies:
American College of Radiation Oncology (ACRO)
American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO)
American College of Radiology (ACR)
American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)
Clinical & Research Interests:
Gastrointestinal Cancer
Pediatric Cancers
Lung Cancer
Other General Cancers and medical conditions that can be treated with radiation.
Research Projects:
My long-term research goal is 1) to use laboratory and clinical data to understand factors influencing treatment outcomes and to generate hypotheses for clinical trials; 2) to design and develop clinical trials and to hasten the introduction of improved regimens for cancer therapy into everyday medical practice and patient care.
Project 1: The overall objective of this project is to identify and characterize pathway(s) contributing to radioresistance in pancreatic cancer (PC) that can be explored as novel targets for radiosensitization. Specifically, the primary goal is to validate the role of cholesterol biosynthesis (CBS) in PC radioresistance and evaluate the efficacy of Zoledronic acid (Zometa) as a novel radiosensitizer (RST) for PC in preclinical studies and Phase I/II clinical trial. The central hypotheses of this proposal are that “the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway contributes to radioresistance in PC. Also, Zometa inhibits specific pathways consistently implicated in PC radioresistance and its use will radio-sensitize PC both in vitro and in vivo”. I am currently running a clinical trial assessing the safety and radiosensitizing efficacy of Zometa. (NCT03073785)
Project 2:  The overall objective of this project is to examine if BMX-001 is a good normal tissue radio-protector. The majority of rectal and anal cancer patients are treated with some form of radiation therapy. Most patients will suffer from acute and/or chronic adverse effects associated with radiation exposure, which leads to a reduced quality of life. Currently there are no FDA approved treatments to protect normal pelvic tissues from radiation damage. Our data clearly show that the manganese porphyrin, BMX-001, protects normal tissues from radiation-induced damage. In addition, BMX-001 does not interfere with the cancer killing of chemo-radiation therapy in colorectal cancer cells. Our hypothesis is that the manganese porphyrin, BMX-001, will protect normal tissues from radiation-induced damage while not protecting the cancer cells in patients undergoing radiation therapy for anal cancers. I am currently running a clinical trial assessing the safety and radioprotection efficacy of BMX-001. (NCT03386500)

Publications (2019-2020):

  1. Menon, H, Patel, RR, Cushman, TR, Amini, A, Seyedin, SN, Adams, AC, Lin, C, Verma, V. “Management and Outcomes of Primary Anorectal Melanoma in the United States” Future Oncol 2020 Mar;16 (8):329-338. PMID: 32067486
  2. Parr, E, Du, Q, Zhang, C, Lin, C, Kamal, A, McAlister, J, Liang, X, Bavitz, K, Rux, G, Hollingsworth, M, Baine, M, Zheng, D. “Radiomics-based outcome prediction for pancreatic cancer following stereotactic body radiotherapy” Cancers 2020, 12(4), 1051;  PMID: 32344538 PMCID: PMC7226523
  3. Amin, S, Baine, M, Meza, J, Alam, M, and Lin, C. “The impact of immunotherapy on the survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who do not receive definitive surgery of the tumor” Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology 2020; 24:34–40,
  4. Amin, S, Baine, M, Meza, J, and Lin, C. “Impact of Immunotherapy on the Survival of Patients With Cancer and Brain Metastases” Accepted to JNCCN 2020
  5. Amin, S, Baine, M, Meza, J, and Lin, C. “The impact of neoadjuvant and adjuvant immunotherapy on the survival of pancreatic cancer patients: a retrospective analysis” BMC Cancer 2020; 20: 538. PMC7285784
  6. Amin, S, Baine, M, Meza, J, Alam, M, and Lin, C. The impact of immunotherapy on the survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who received definitive surgery of the pancreatic tumor: a retrospective analysis of the National Cancer Database” BMC Radiat Oncol 2020; 15: 139. PMC7268762
  7. Ryckman, JM, Baine, M, Carmicheal, J, Osayande, F, Sleightholm, R, Samson, K, Zheng, D, Zhen, W, Lin, C, Chi Zhang, C. “Correlation of Dosimetric Factors With the Development of Symptomatic Radiation Pneumonitis in Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy” Radiat Oncol 2020 Feb 13;15(1):33. PMID: 32054487 PMCID: PMC7020355
  8. Wu G, Baine MJ, Zhao N, Li S, Li X, Lin C. “Lymphocyte-Sparing effect of stereotactic body radiation therapy compared to conventional fractionated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced Pancreatic Cancer.” BMC Cancer 2019; Oct 22;19(1):977, PMC6805585
  9. Lin C, Verma V, Lazenby A, Ly QP, Berim LD, Schwarz JK, Madiyalakan M, Nicodemus CF, Michael A. Hollingsworth MA, Meza JL, Are C, Padussis J, and Grem JL, “Phase I/II Trial of Neoadjuvant Oregovomab-Based Chemoimmunotherapy Followed by Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Nelfinavir for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma” Am J Clin Oncol 2019; Sep 10; 42:755–760 PMID: 31513018
  10. Wang, S, Zheng, D, Lin, C, Lei, Y, Verma, V, Smith, A, Ma, R, Enke, C, and Zhou, S. “Technical Assessment of an Automated Treatment Planning on Dose Escalation of Pancreas Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy. Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment.” 2019 18: 1-10. PMC6572905
  11. Baine MJ, Sleightholm R, Neilsen BK, Oupický D, Smith LM, Verma V, Lin C. “Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Versus Nonradiotherapeutic Ablative Procedures (Laser/Cryoablation and Electrocautery) for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.” J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2019 May 1;17(5):450-458. PMID: 31085762
  12. Lin, C. Verma V, Ly, Q.P., Lazenby, A., Sasson, A., Schwarz, J.K., Meza, J.L., Are, C., Li, S., Wang, S., Hahn, S.M., Grem, J.L. “Phase I Trial of Concurrent Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Nelfinavir for Locally Advanced Borderline or Unresectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma” Radiother Oncol. 2019 Mar; 132:55-62. PMID: 30825970
  13. Verma V, Haque W, Cushman TR, Lin C, Simone CB 2nd, Chang JY, McClelland S 3rd, Welsh JW. Racial and Insurance-related Disparities in Delivery of Immunotherapy-type Compounds in the United States. J Immunother. 2019 Feb/Mar; 42(2):55-64.
  14. Hill TK, Baine MJ, Verma V, Alam M, Lyden ER, Lin C, Connolly EP, Zhang C. “Patterns of Care in Pediatric Craniopharyngioma: Outcomes Following Definitive Radiotherapy.” Anticancer Res. 2019 Feb; 39(2):803-807.
  15. Reid E, Suneja G, Ambinder RF, Ard K, Baiocchi R, Barta SK, Carchman E, Cohen A, Crysler OV, Gupta N, Gustafson C, Hall A, Johung KL, Klopp A, LaCasce AS, Lin C, Mehta A, Menon MP, Morgan D, Nathwani N, Noy A, Ratner L, Rizza S, Rudek MA, Sanchez J, Taylor J, Tomlinson B, Wang CJ, Yendamuri S, Dwyer MA; CGC, Freedman-Cass DA. “AIDS-Related Kaposi Sarcoma, Version 2.2019.” NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2019 Feb; 17(2):171-189. PMID: 30787130
  16. Cushman TR, Shaaban SG, Moreno AC, Lin C, Verma V. “Management of Unresectable T4b Esophageal Cancer: Practice Patterns and Outcomes From the National Cancer Data Base” Am J Clin Oncol. 2019 Feb; 42(2):154-159. PMID: 30499838
  17. Wang Y, Yu X, Zhao N, Wang J, Lin C, Izaguirre EW, Farmer M, Tian G, Somer B, Dubal N, Schwartz DL, Ballo MT, VanderWalde NA. “Definitive pelvic radiotherapy and survival of patients with newly diagnosed metastatic anal cancer.” J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2019 Jan; 17(1):29-37. PMID: 30659127
  18. Baine, M.J., Sleightholm, R., Lin, C. “Incidence and patterns of locoregional failure after stereotactic body radiation therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.” Pract Radiat Oncol. 2019 Jan; 9(1):e29-e37. PMID: 30612720
  19. Verma V, Haque W, Zheng D, Osayande F, Lin C. “Patterns of Care and Outcomes of Elderly Esophageal Cancer Patients Not Meeting Age-based Criteria of the CROSS Trial.” Am J Clin Oncol 2019 Jan; 42 (1) : 67-74. PMID: 30216194
  20. Lin, C., Verma, V., Chapter 43: “Wilms’ Tumor” Radiation Oncology Management Decisions, Fourth Edition, Editors: K.S. Clifford Chao, Carlos A. Perez, Tony J.C. Wang; ISBN-13: 978-1496391094, 2019
  21. Lin, C., Verma, V., Chapter 45: “Rhabdomyosarcoma” Radiation Oncology Management Decisions, Fourth Edition, Editors: K.S. Clifford Chao, Carlos A. Perez, Tony J.C. Wang; ISBN-13: 978-1496391094, 2019
  22. Lin, C., Verma, V., Chapter 46: “Lymphomas in Children” Radiation Oncology Management Decisions, Fourth Edition, Editors: K.S. Clifford Chao, Carlos A. Perez, Tony J.C. Wang; ISBN-13: 978-1496391094, 2019
Publications (2015-2018):
  1. Wilke, T.J., Bhirud, A.R., Lin, C.  "A review of the impact of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on outcome and postoperative complications in esophageal cancer patients" Am J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug; 38 (4):415-21. PMID: 24351783
  2. Charlton, M.E., Stitzenberg, K.B., Lin, C., Schlichting, J.A., Halfdanarson, T.R., Juarez, G.Y., Pendergast, J.F., Chrischilles, E.A., and Wallace, R.B. "Predictors of Long-Term Quality of Life for Survivors of Stage II/III Rectal Cancer in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium" J Oncol Pract. 2015 Jul;11(4):e476-86. PMID:26080831
  3. Wilke, T.J., Bhirud, A.R., Lin, C. "A review of the impact of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on outcome and postoperative complications in esophageal cancer patients" Am J Clin Oncol. 2015 Aug;38(4):415-21. PMID:24351783
  4. Verma, V., Catrina, J., Bennion, N., Bhirud, A., Li, S., McComb, R., Lin, C. "Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor: Long-Term Survival after Chemoradiotherapy" Childs Nerv Syst. 2015 Aug;31(8):1393-9, PMID:25939716
  5. Lin, C., Lin, J., Stavas, M., Li, S., Canady, K.J., Romberger, D., Loberiza, F.R. "Impact of Body Mass Index on Pulmonary Complications in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Treated with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation" Leukemia and lymphoma, 2015, 2015;56(11):3058-64. PMID:25739939
  6. Malouff, T, Bennion, NR, Verma, V, Martinez, GA, Balkman N, Bhirud, A, Smith T, Lin, C. "Which Prognostic Index is Most Appropriate in the Setting of Delayed Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases?" Front Oncol. 2016 Nov 21; 6: 248, PMID: 27917372
  7. Chiu MS, Verma V, Bennion NR, Bhirud AR, Li J, Charlton ME, Are C, Lin C. "Comparison of outcomes between rectal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma." Cancer Med. 2016 Oct 26, PMID: 27781400
  8. Denniston, K.A., Verma, V., Bhirud, A.R., Bennion, N.R., Lin, C. "Effect of Akimbo Versus Raised Arm Positioning on Breast and Cardiopulmonary Dosimetry in Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma" Front. Oncol. 2016 Jul 26;6:176. PMID:27508169
  9. Gharzai L., Verma V., Denniston K.A., Bhirud A.R., Bennion N.R., Lin C. "Radiation Therapy and Cardiac Death in Long-Term Survivors of Esophageal Cancer: An Analysis of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Database" PLOS ONE, 2016 Jul 18;11(7):e0158916, PMID:27428362
  10. Xu, B., Chen, Y., Guo, Y., Zhou, D., Yue, Z., Duan, Q., Yang, Y., Guan, G., Chi, P., Lin, C. "Pretreatment tumor thickness as a predictor of pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for stage II/III rectal adenocarcinoma." AJCO. 2016 Sep 26. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:27672742
  11. Xu, B., Guo, Y., Chen, Y., Lu,H., Tang, T., Yue, Z., Guan, G., Chi, P., Lin, C. "Is the irradiated small bowel volume still a predictor for acute lower gastrointestinal toxicity during preoperative concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer when using intensity-modulated radiation therapy?" Radiation Oncology, 2016 Volume 10, page 257 PMID 26684643
  12. Dhir M, Melin AA, Douaiher J, Lin C, Zhen WK, Hussain SM, Geschwind JF, Doyle MB, Abou-Alfa GK, Are C."A Review and Update of Treatment Options and Controversies in the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma" Annals of Surgery: June 2016 - Volume 263 - Issue 6 - p 1112–1125. PMID:26813914
  13. Zheng, D., Zhu, X., Zhang, Q., Liang, X., Zhen, W., Lin, C., Verma, V., Wang, S., Wahl, A.O., Lei, Y., Zhou, S., Zhang, C "Target dose conversion modeling from pencil beam (PB) to Monte Carlo (MC) for lung SBRT" BMC Radiation Oncology 2016 Jun 17;11:83. PMID 27316922
  14. Verma, V., Li, J, Lin C. Neoadjuvant Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer: Systematic Review of Postoperative Morbidity, Mortality, and Complications, AJCO, 2016 Jun; 39 (3):302-13 PMID 26950464
  15. Bennion, N.R., Malouff, T., Verma, V., Denniston, K., Bhirud, A.R., Zhen, W., Wahl, A., Lin, C.  "A Comparison of Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes Between Frame-based and Frameless Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases" Practical Radiation Oncology, 2016 May 9. pii: S1879-8500(16)30046-7. PMID:27523439
  16. Verma, V., Beethe, A., LeRiger, M., Kulkarni, R., Zhang, M., Lin, C. Anesthesia Complications of Pediatric Radiotherapy.  Practice Radiation Oncology, 2016 May-Jun; 6 (3):143-54 PMID 26725960
  17. Kosmacek, E.A., Chatterjee, A., Tong, Q., Lin, C., Oberley-Deegan, R.E. "MnTnBuOE-2-PyP protects normal colorectal fibroblasts from radiation damage and simultaneously enhances radio/chemotherapeutic killing of colorectal cancer cells." Oncotarget. 2016 Apr 22. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.8923. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:27119354
  18. Verma, V., Kulkarni, R.R., Bhirud, A.R., Bennion, N.R., McComb, R.D., Lin, C. Metachronous medulloblastoma and glioblastoma: Implications for clinical and technical aspects of re-irradiation. Reports of Practical Oncology & Radiotherapy, 2016 Jan-Feb; 21 (1):84-9. PMID: 26900364
  19. Bennion, N., Nowak, R.K., Lyden, E.R. Thompson, R.B., Sicong Li, S., Lin, C. "Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: Dosimetric Factors Predictive of Hearing Outcomes" Practical Radiation Oncology, 2016 Sep-Oct;6(5):e155-62. PMID: 26961715
  20. Verma, V., Shah, C., Lautenschlaeger, T., Lin, C., Beriwal, S., Zhen, W., Mehta, M.P., Zietman, A.L., "International Medical Graduates in Radiation Oncology: Historical Trends and Comparison With Other Medical Specialties" IJROBP, July 15, 2016, Volume 95, Issue 4, Pages 1102–1106 PMID 27209507
  21. Zhu, X., Li, J., Li, X., Li, Y., Ni, Q., Wang, L., Gu, J., Cai, Y., and Lin, C. "Two-week Course of Preoperative Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Adenocarcinoma: 8 Years' Experience in a Single Institute" Am J Clin Oncol. 2017 Jun; 40(3):266-273.PMID:25503430
  22. Seshacharyulu, P., Baine, M.J., Souchek, J.J., Menning, M., Kaur, S., Yan, Y., Ouellette, M.M., Jain, M., Lin, C., Batra, S.K. "Biological determinants of radioresistance and their remediation in pancreatic cancer" Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Feb 27; 1868 (1):69-92, PMID: 28249796
  23. Verma, V., Bhirud, A.R., Denniston, K.A., Bennion, N.R., Lin, C. "Quantification of renal function following stereotactic body radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer: secondary dosimetric analysis of a prospective clinical trial." Radiat Oncol. 2017 Apr 27; 12 (1):71. PMID: 28449702
  24. Verma, V., Denniston, K.A., Lin, C.J., Lin, C. "A Comparison of Pediatric vs. Adult Patients with the Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors" Front Oncol. 2017 May 8; 7: 82 PMID: 28534008
  25. Wu, G., Verma, V., Lin, C. "Feasibility and Reproducibility of Substituting Oral Contrast with Water for Duodenal Volume Delineation in Patients Undergoing Pancreatic Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy" J Gastrointest Oncol. 2017 Aug; 8(4): 705-709. PMC5582030
  26. Schonewolf, C.A., Verma, V., Post, C.M., Berman, A.T., Frick, M.A., Vachani, A., Lin, C., Simone, C.B. "Outcomes of Invasive Mediastinal Nodal Staging Versus Positron Emission Tomography Staging Alone for Early-Stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy" Lung Cancer. 2017 Jul 14. pii: S0169-5002(17)30384-7. PMID: 28800837
  27. Charlton, M.E., Kahl, A.R., Greenbaum, A.A., Karlitz, J.J., Lin, C., Lynch, C.F., Chen, V.W. "KRAS Testing, Tumor Location and Survival in Stage IV Colorectal Cancer Patients: SEER, 2010-2013" J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2017 Dec;15(12):1484-1493. PMID: 29223986
  28. Zvolanek, K., Ma, R., Zhou, C., Liang, X., Wang, S., Verma, V., Zhu, X., Zhang, Q., Driewer, J., Lin, C., Zhen, W., Wahl, A., Zhou, S., Zheng, D. "Still equivalent for dose calculation in the Monte Carlo era? A comparison of free breathing and average intensity projection CT datasets for lung SBRT using three generations of dose calculation algorithms" Med Phys. 2017 May;44(5):1939-1947. PMID: 28273341
  29. Gunda, V., Souchek, J., Abrego, J., Shukla, S.K., Goode, G.D., Vernucci, E., Dasgupta, A., Chaika, N.V., King, R.J., Li, S., Wang, S., Yu, F., Bessho, T., Lin, C., Singh, P.K. "MUC1-mediated metabolic alterations regulate response to radiotherapy in pancreatic cancer" Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Oct 1;23(19):5881-5891. PMID:28720669
  30. Verma, V., Ryckman, J.M., Simone, C.B., Lin, C. "Patterns of care and outcomes with the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy for stage I nasopharyngeal cancer" Acta Oncologica, 19 Jul 2017, 57(2):257-261. PMID:28723264
  31. Baine, MJ, Lin, C. "Genome-based modeling for adjusting radiotherapy dose (GARD)-a significant step toward the future of personalized radiation therapy" Translational Cancer Research, Vol 6, Supplement 2 (March 2017) S418-S420. doi: 10.21037/tcr.2017.03.05
  32. Lin, C. "When it comes to elderly and poor performance status patients with pancreatic cancer, SBRT may be a better option" J Oncology Practice, 2017, 13 (3): 167-168. PMID:28282281
  33. Verma V, Lazenby AJ, Zheng D, Bhirud AR, Ly QP, Are C, Sasson AR, Lin C. "Dosimetric Parameters Correlate With Duodenal Histopathologic Damage After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: Secondary Analysis of a Prospective Clinical Trial." Radiother Oncol. 2017 Mar;122(3):464-469. PMID: 28089484
  34. Verma V, Surkar SM, Brooks ED, Simone CB II, Lin C. Chemoradiotherapy Versus Chemotherapy Alone for Unresected Nonmetastatic Gallbladder Cancer: National Practice Patterns and Outcomes. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2018 Jan;16(1):59-65. PMID: 29295882
  35. Verma V, Ryckman JM, Simone CB II, Lin C. Patterns of care and outcomes with the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy for stage I nasopharyngeal cancer. Acta Oncol. 2018 Feb;57(2):257-261. PMID: 28723264


DHHS/NIH/NCI 2 P50 CA127297-06A1 (Hollingsworth)
SPORE in Pancreatic Cancer: Focus is on translational studies that address basic and clinical issues of importance to improving outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer.
Title of the project: Novel Target(s) in the Radiosensitization of Pancreatic Cancer
Role: Project Co-Leader

DHHS/NIH/NCI 1R01CA195586-01A1 (Batra)
Title of the project: Targeted Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic CancerRole:

UNMC Eppley Cancer Center and Quest Pharma Tech, Inc.
Title of the project:     A Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with and without Immunotherapy to CA125 (Oregovomab) Followed by Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy and Concurrent HIV Protease Inhibitor Nelfinavir in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
Role: PI

UNMC Eppley Cancer Center
Title of the project: A Phase 1 Study of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy and Concurrent HIV Protease Inhibitor Nelfinavir as part of a Neoadjuvant Regimen in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer
Role: PI

UNMC #MXH/99-925-1429
Title of the project: A Randomized Phase II Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy and 5FU or capecitabine with and without Zometa in Patients with Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Role: PI

Otis Glebe Medical Research Foundation Grant
BioMimetix provides BMX-001
Title of the project: A Phase 1 Trial for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Anal Cancer Treated with Concurrent Radiation Therapy, 5FU, Mitomycin and BMX-001
Role: PI

Bob Holmes Cancer Research Fund-01144460
Title of the project: To test the immune effects of metformin in pancreatic cancer
Role: PI