Medicine must recognize that early contributions from scientists like Carl Linnaeus, Samuel Morton, Samuel Cartwright and others laid the groundwork for a classification system of racial hierarchy and biologic inferiority. They studied anatomical differences among different races and used this science to infer certain aspects of personality and character and used it to justify white superiority and validate slavery.
This paved the way for the eugenics movement which encouraged processes like selective breeding to improve population health. In the United States, this led to injustices such as forced sterilization and segregation.
If you are interested in reading more about race, anatomy, and genetics, please see the resources below: